Horizontal agreements are those made between two competitors or businesses engaged in the same industry. These types of agreements are often subject to antitrust laws and regulations, as they can have significant effects on competition and market outcomes. Here, we will discuss the different types of horizontal agreements that can occur and their potential consequences.

1. Price-fixing agreements: Price-fixing is an agreement between competitors to set prices at a certain level. It is a violation of antitrust laws, as it restricts competition and harms consumers by artificially inflating prices.

2. Market allocation agreements: Market allocation involves dividing customers, territories, or products among competitors. This type of agreement eliminates competition in certain markets, enabling companies to charge higher prices.

3. Bid-rigging agreements: Bid-rigging occurs when competitors agree to submit non-competitive bids, ultimately allowing one party to win the contract. This type of agreement harms consumers by inflating prices and restricting competition.

4. Output restrictions: This type of agreement involves competitors agreeing to limit their production or output, leading to higher prices for consumers. It is often done to maintain profit margins and avoid price wars.

5. Joint venture agreements: A joint venture is an agreement between two or more businesses to combine resources and work together for a common goal. It can lead to increased efficiencies, but it is subject to antitrust scrutiny if it restricts competition or harms consumers.

In conclusion, horizontal agreements between competitors should be approached carefully and with an understanding of antitrust laws. While some agreements, such as joint ventures, can have positive outcomes, others, such as price-fixing and market allocation, can harm consumers and restrict competition. Copy editors experienced in SEO should be aware of the potential consequences of these agreements and ensure any content related to them is accurate and compliant with antitrust laws.